Homeland Security Watch

News and analysis of critical issues in homeland security

October 19, 2014

Who is my neighbor?

Filed under: Biosecurity,Preparedness and Response,Public Health & Medical Care,Strategy — by Philip J. Palin on October 19, 2014

EBOLA_James harris

I perceive it is prudent — as well as accurate — to make the case that the best way to mitigate Ebola risk in the United States is to significantly degrade the risk in West Africa.

Recently Thomas Frieden, Director of the CDC, felt it was politically necessary to say, “I am not protecting West Africa. My number one responsibility is to protect Americans from threats.”

Over the last few weeks at HLSWatch we had cause to consider the potentially warping effects of self-interest too narrowly conceived or fatally denied.

Last week The Telegraph (London) offered a gallery of online photographs entitled, “Survivors: Portraits of Liberians who recovered from Ebola“.  Above is James Harris, age 29, who recovered after two weeks at death’s door.  He is now a nurse’s assistant in a Doctors Without Borders treatment center in Paynesville, Liberia.

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Comment by William R. Cumming

October 19, 2014 @ 1:47 pm

Clearly Friedan misspoke. The battle for the USA is in West Africa, IMO!.

Comment by Philip J. Palin

October 19, 2014 @ 2:09 pm

Bill: To clarify context, Frieden agrees with you and me that West Africa is our substantive front line. But in trying to make this case he has been accused of being more concerned with “them” than us. In essence he is pushed to deny any concern for West Africans in order to prove his loyalty and priority to us. Strategically it is a false distinction. Ethically it is indefensible. But to make the distinction has become politically prudent.

Comment by William R. Cumming

October 19, 2014 @ 9:53 pm

Thanks Phil for the important clarification.

Comment by Philip J. Palin

October 20, 2014 @ 4:22 am

Bill, I have edited my original to be, I hope, a bit clearer.

Comment by Christopher Tingus

October 20, 2014 @ 6:37 am

Who is my neighbor?

….and the commitment by our beloved Republic, America to our disciplined and enlightened scientists and physicians committed to helping neighbor, now so close to a vaccine even for Ebola which will benefit far many more in distant shore than even our own populace, this wonderful post prompts my reply again and again pointing to a world where so few are understanding of the importance of Life and the family values and parenting so integral to promoting healthy living rather than this utterly disappointing 21st century society with such vast technological innovation in importance to enhancing the quality of Life for so many communities globally, yet, the malnourishment of those among us so indolent in their mannerisms and certainly passing through this precious journey in Life willing to be “enslaved” by those willing to cast the first stone!

With much chagrin, I am especially more and more reluctant to reach to my Middle East neighbors in what appears to be this generational self-deprecating Arab world riddled w/such dysfunctional mannerism, unable to stand and shout “foul” to these adverse affronts to individual by those among the populace and community with such perverse and corruptive as well as so belligerent in demeanor, disrespectful towards fellow human beings, women and children and simply men evidently failing in so many ways to grasp the prerequisite requirement in value that education and enlightenment to God’s word rather than the manipulation of the truth – which admittedly can also be pointed to in the West to some extent – will always apparently obscure the real Blessings bestowed upon each individual, each God’s child….the promise the future holds for the new born and the similarities in genetics to one another rather than pointing to the dissimilarity which is not as important to promoting the enhancement of Life!

….and while expected to afford kindness towards neighbor and when possible a helping hand, this continued blasphemous behavior by so many ignorant as to God’s words and encouragement in teaching the importance of neighbors helping neighbors, the beheadings of westerners and among their own populace in the 21st century, the obvious cowardice of man hiding behind face mask, but so willing to raise sword rather than carry the real Book of Knowledge and wisdom, well as one who has walked the streets of Hebron and Jericho and awed at Ephesus and again disappointed by mankind when in the 3rd century pillage of Ephesus by the Goths meant to obliterate the wonders depicted within those marble walls….in the 21st century humanity allows ISIS for instance to blow up Islamic and Christian as well as other sites of historical and cultural value, how dare you?

While as an elderly individual, I can understand with some compassion the hormones, the lack of wisdom and direction of the often dysfunctional ways offered by youth and the bravado supposedly honored among men who tout their chest in defiance of some abhorrent and injustice cast upon them at least in their interpretation of their Life’s moment in time, however truly the lessons of history and the failure to recognize the dignity of every human being is just so, so wrong!

Yes, unfortunately and with heartfelt disappointment the “generational stonewalls” seem to cast one generation to another in the same limited scope of despair and little Hope to embrace Life and certainly not to take another and make any such judgement towards another for it is our Creator, the Lord who can only judge another, however for those of us as elders who are near to our next step in Life’s journey and soon to continue into this ever Loving embrace of the Lord and in having walked the streets of Hebron and Jericho, listening to the automobile horns honking on the streets of Cairo no matter the time of day, so many in such hurry as those with ears buds and texting casting one’s eyes downward instead to the kindness of heart we see in family together or even stranger sitting near us on our various modes of 21st century mobility, while I am in awe Not of the pillage and destruction of churches or mosques or the installation of some flag atop a mountain, but rather, in awe that those for instance at http://www.nasa.gov/nustar, despite all the dysfunctional ways of mankind, really seek to look to our universe and beyond and to even the black holes glorious heavens to find solutions to improve the quality of Life for mankind in helping neighbor and finding out not only the name of our neighbor and while not necessarily embracing our neighbor, at least portraying kindness and sharing respect towards another in this 21st century….

Unfortunately for mankind, unless more repent and amend their ways and Judeo-Christian values, family values and bi-partisan laws here in America are followed and enforced as well as borders closed like all other sovereign entity and all those seeking the benefits of freedom expressed in our unique Democracy properly adhere to the law in application and medical certification, unless strong leadership in arsenal and sound mind take the reigns of this great country once again, despite the bright stars in knowledge and enlightenment among us, those seeking our demise will prevail and another Great War again will bring much anguish and fail humanity w/God’s compassionate heart so utterly disappointed and God enraged as to the selfishness which mankind in its dysfunctional way has never learned to overcome and can begin my simply reaching to a neighbor, one by one and expressing a sincere, – May I help you? – Neighbor Helping Neighbors!

“To the Theotokos, let us cry, Hail Full of Grace, the Lord is with you” and recall, “Thou slay hades with the lightening of Thy Divinity” – and further, in St. Paul’s Second Letter to the Corinthians 11:31-33; 12:1:9 Prokeimenon Mode 2, Psalm 117, 14, 18, “The Lord is my strength and my song. Verse: The Lord has chastened me sorely.

God bless us all!

Christopher Tingus
“Main Street USA”
Neighbors Helping Neighbors
PO Box 1612
Harwich (Cape Cod), MA 02645 USA

Comment by Philip J. Palin

October 20, 2014 @ 8:34 am

Mr. Tingus, Thank you. I appreciate the struggle I hear in your words. Your empathy for misdirected young male hormones highlights a too often neglected issue of homeland security. We can — probably should — smile, but it is also quite serious. On this topic you might look into the work of Scott Atran. He was featured (again) on last week’s On Being. This ability to self-identify even with our adversaries is a tough but essential discipline. You and I each acknowledge being called to love our neighbors… and even our enemies. Love is not an easy sentiment, it is a complex engagement. It is, at least I have found, always a struggle.

Comment by William R. Cumming

October 20, 2014 @ 9:30 am

Help! Since retirement in 1999 from FEMA I have tried somewhat desperately to have a treatise on Civil/Military relations in /crisis and disaster management created. I have found no help and almost no interest anywhere. Military or civilian. Perhaps the DEEP STATE opposes.

But now DoD is gearing up for the EBOLA mission and not sure of its parameters. An Executive Order assigning the DoD foreign disaster {humanitarian?] mission is now underway. Other than for its own FORCE PROTECTION efforts on EBOLA [DoD has already invested millions] it has its construction battalions deployed in WEST AFRICA with a small medical staff.

So a backgrounder of mine up-dated is provided of how DoD bowed out of domestic crisis planning. Thanks to Colin Powell rival systems for the military and civil agencies do NOT exist technically and legally.

Colin Powell is the foremost authority on military/civil relations in the USA period. He would be another candidate this fuzzy headed liberal opines to lead the EBOLA fight domestically and overseas.

So here goes:

VLG Backgrounder Reviewed October 2014

The NSC’s 1988 Staff Efforts to Create a National Security Emergency Plan for Large Scale Domestic Events

This backgrounder has been reviewed and slightly up-dated form purposes of the current pandemic affecting West Africa since its outbreak in December 2013.
It helps explain in part why DoD and its components are not the lead domestically for EBOLA response and recovery domestically!

The concept of a National Security Emergency Plan as developed by National Security Council staff in 1988 was derivative of early planning efforts mandated by the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, Pub.L 81-920, (hereinafter FCDA). President Eisenhower, then a General in charge of war planning, has been attributed with the saying “Planning is everything but the plan is nothing.” A some comprehensive discussion of planning appears in “Facing the Unexpected-Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States,” Kathleen J. Tierney, Michael L. Lindell, and Ronald W. Perry, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C. (2001). It is certain that planning, and the coordination and cooperation to produce a plan has been identified as a key element of preparedness.

A brief introduction to federal planning efforts for both mobilization and response to domestic disasters and emergencies and resources preparedness for those events as well as for national defense is necessary.

On April 17, 1952, President Harry S. Truman in E.O. 10346 mandated that each federal department or agency should cooperate with the Federal Civil Defense Administration to prepare plans for providing its personnel, materials, facilities, and services during the existence of a Civil Defense Emergency (a term used in the FCDA). It should be noted that authority for declaration of a Civil Defense Emergency lapsed in 1974. The plans were to be designed to include continuity of department and agency operations and coordination of such arrangements with other national, state, and local civil defense plans. No consolidated emergency response plan appeared until 1958, with final issuance as a document signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 under the auspices of the Office of Emergency Preparedness (originally, the Office of Emergency Management in WWII, and then the Office of Emergency Planning from 1958-61).

It should be noted that so-called continuity of government (COG) and resource mobilization plans were segregated as early as 1953. For a discussion of planning see Paul Bracken, Command and Control (Yale University Press, 1983). Additional civil government mobilization, including standby legislation (primarily the lapsed titles of the FCDA and the Defense Production Act of 1950) was incorporated in classified Plan D and “Other than D” to address nuclear attack related emergencies. These plans never received Presidential approval or Department of Justice formal review. Telecommunications planning was also separately addressed as early as 1962. For a list of planning assignments as of 1962 see E.O. 11051 of September 27, 1962.

Resource mobilization planning for a coordinated federal response was energized when on December 17, 1981, the President through the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs signed a memorandum establishing the Emergency Preparedness Mobilization Board (hereinafter EMPB). This action was taken in response to a Memorandum for Edwin Meese, III, Counsel to the President from Frank C. Carlucci, Deputy Secretary of Defense and Louis O. Guiffrida, Director of FEMA, dated May 26, 1981.

Two National Security Decisions (NSD 30 “Managing Terrorist Incidents” April 10, 1982 and NSD 47 “Emergency Mobilization Preparedness” July 22, 1982) were soon issued that established two fundamentals. First in the event of threatened or actual terrorist attacks lead agencies were designated as responsible, principally State for international terrorism, Justice for domestic terrorism, and FEMA for response to actual events. Second, the principal was established that even natural disasters could impact national security, and a single system was required for the national security community and its assets to respond. NSD 47 in particular identified a large catastrophic earthquake (the placement of the principal research, development, and manufacturing capability of the nation for the technology sector in California was the specific catalyst) as potentially damaging national security. It therefore concluded that a single response system was necessary and empowered the EMPB to design such as system. By 1985, in NSD 188 the EMPB was disestablished having completed a plan of action. (It should be noted that the Los Angeles Olympics had energized the Department of Justice in the assigned lead role in domestic terrorism and DOJ was increasingly anxious to assert that role).

In a memorandum dated September 15, 1987, signed by Frank C. Carlucci, Secretary of Defense, on behalf of the National Security Council, the President directed implementation of a national security emergency plan to replace obsolete plans and update standby documents, specifically draft Executive Orders, for various emergencies.

Because of differing coordination systems and mandates, on January 19, 1988, with Presidential approval, the Domestic Policy Council (after 15 months of effort) adopted a National System for Emergency Coordination (NSEC) to provide timely, effective, and coordinated assistance to States and local governments in extreme catastrophic technological, natural or other domestic disasters of national significance.

The NSEC created functional groups in (1) communications; (2) economic affairs; (3) energy; (4) human services; (5) transportation; and other functions as needed. Confusingly, after establishing functional assignments, the system then adopted a lead
Agency approach as follows:
(1) Natural Disasters-FEMA;
(2) Health or Medical-DHHS;
(3) Terrorism (less Airborne Hijacking)-DOJ;
(4) Accident at licensed nuclear power plant-NRC;
(5) Nuclear Weapon, reactor facility accident-DOD or DOE (“owner”);
(6) Environmental-EPA;
(7) Transportation-DOT;
(8) Economic disruption-Treasury;
(9) Telecommunications-OSTP/NCS.

A system of appointment of a FCO (Federal Coordinating Officer) was also adopted with the FCO to be from the lead agency. Frank Carlucci, then an Assistant Director of OMB under President Nixon [later SECDEF under President Reagan] was the first FCO and operated during recovery to Tropical Storm Agnes in 1972.

On April 27, 1988, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Colin l. Powell, assigned seven national security priorities to the civil agencies with the third highest priority the preparation of a National Security Emergency Plan to encompass both mobilization and response. In a memorandum to the President on June 27, 1988, the Secretary of Defense committed to full DOD support to the civil emergency planning process, including mobilization, continuity of government (the role of the President as Chief Executive (civil authority) as juxtaposed with that of Commander-In-Chief (military), and when assigned DOD support to civil agency response planning.

On June 27, 1988, the same day that the Secretary of Defense was pledging renewed cooperation in NSEP (National Security Emergency Preparedness Planning) to the President, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Colin L. Powell, directed that an analogous system for responding to large-scale emergencies that could adversely affect national security be created. The Powell memorandum directed that a National Security Emergency Plan be created with a functionally oriented structure as a companion approach to the Plan for a Federal Response to a Catastrophic Earthquake (adopted in 1987 and predecessor to the Federal Response Plan) that had been mandated in the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977.

Until the promulgation of E.O. 12656, “Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities” on November 18, 1988, efforts to create a National Security Emergency Plan continued. At that point the assignment of lead and support functions to the departments and agencies in the Order led to substantial fragmentation of various planning efforts and the hope of unified NSEP died.

It should also be noted that on November 23, 1988, DOD was authorized by statute to act on behalf of the President for a period of up to 10 days when a disaster is imminent (prior to declaration) in the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub.L.100-707.

It soon became evident that both for natural disasters and national security emergency events, a functional approach indicated substantial overlap in planning and plans. A concept implied in NSD 47 in 1982. Because of progress in turning the Earthquake Plan into a Natural Hazards Response Plan (eventually the Federal Response Plan) the concept of a separate NSEP was dropped. (Separate COG and telecommunications plans remain, while Mobilization (resource preparedness) plans for the civil agencies with the exception of Defense Production Act authorities have ended (both Clinton and Bush administrations.

(Editors Note)

A diagram of major federal plans and their history is posted with this paper. For text of NSD’s see National Security Directives of the Reagan and Bush Administrations (1981-1991), Christopher Simpson, Westview Press, 1995.

All are also available on FAS severs and some on the FAS/FEMA website.

Comment by William R. Cumming

October 20, 2014 @ 9:48 am

Near the end of my prior comment appears the following:
“A diagram of major federal plans and their history is posted with this paper.” It does not appear!

But it is still available on my website as a draft for which I release all copyright on the HISTORY OF CIVIL RESPONSE PLANNING! It was never finalized due to lack of interest although I expended about $3000 on others helping with organization and graphics. It was used in a number of Hill briefings by CRS and GAO with my permission. And numerous academics have utilized it. The website again is http://www.vacationlanegrp.com

BTW retired from FEMA over 15 years now!

Comment by William R. Cumming

October 20, 2014 @ 9:57 am

Cumming, W. R., Rubin, C.B. and Renda-Tanali, I. 2003. Time line of federal civil response planning (1952-2002)(draft) (JPEG document)

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