Homeland Security Watch

News and analysis of critical issues in homeland security

April 15, 2015

The Boston Marathon Bombing – two years ago today

Filed under: General Homeland Security — by Arnold Bogis on April 15, 2015

At 2:49pm today, the baseball game between the Boston Red Sox and the Washington Nationals was halted to commemorate the two year anniversary of the Boston Marathon Bombing. That is at least how I was reminded of this somber moment in time.

There were other, even more poignant, events held today.  The Boston Globe has the details:

In two simple ceremonies, the families of Krystle Campbell, 29, who grew up in Medford; and Martin Richard, 8, of Dorchester, the youngest victim of the attack, joined Governor Charlie Baker and Boston Mayor Martin J. Walsh in pulling long swaths of yellow fabric from lightposts near where the bombs exploded.

At the center of each banner was a heart emblazoned with “Boston,” a road curving up to meet the letters.

And the Globe describes a “Service of Resiliency:”

Inside the Old South Church, which is across the street from the Marathon finish line, several dozen worshipers took part in an interfaith “Service of Resiliency” featuring prayer and song before the moment of silence.

Rev. Dr. Nancy Taylor, senior minister of Old South Church, told those assembled that, over the past two years, Bostonians have been in “a kind of intimate dance, a slow dance, but one in which he have held on to each other and refused to let each other go.”

Her message to the congregation: “Keep dancing. Because for two years now, we have been written on each other’s dance cards, and there’s no way of getting out of it. We are each other’s destiny.”

Perhaps it is worth noting that the living perpetrator, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, was convicted on all 30 charges he faced, 17 of which carry the potential for the death penalty.

Perhaps for the readership of this blog, it is even a better time to consider the preparedness and response to this event. In terms of response, last week the Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency released their After Action Report on the response to the bombings. I hope to post more on this report on a later date.  But today’s anniversary might be a good time to take a look.

Perhaps the best memorial to those lives lost, shattered, and forever changed is to use this attack to learn how to better prevent, mitigate, prepare, respond, and recover.

Perhaps the best memorial is to continue to work on becoming more resilient.

Update: Video from today’s baseball game:

Former DHS Assistant Secretary Juliette Kayyem’s “Security Mom” podcasts

Filed under: General Homeland Security — by Arnold Bogis on April 15, 2015

Juliette Kayyem, formerly Assistant Secretary for Intergovernmental Affairs at DHS and before that Homeland Security Advisor to Governor Deval Patrick in Massachusetts, has started recording podcasts where she interviews various homeland security-related people on various homeland security-related topics.

Produced by public radio station WGBH in Boston, the podcasts are titled “Security Mom,” which is also the title of her upcoming book.  The first episode is a conversation with former Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis about the Marathon bombings.  The next episode with feature former DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff sharing his true feelings about the old color coded threat level indicator.

You can listen to the first episode here: http://wgbhnews.org/post/inside-command-and-control-during-boston-marathon-bombings

And you can subscribe to the podcasts at the iTunes store here: https://itunes.apple.com/tt/podcast/security-mom/id983421368?mt=2

Update: Boston Magazine points out a couple of interesting points from Kayyem’s conversation with Davis.  These include relations between the FBI and local police, the shelter-in-place order, and the barrage of gunfire directed toward the boat where Tsarnaev was hiding. You can read it here.

April 13, 2015

Twenty years from Oklahoma

Filed under: Terrorist Threats & Attacks — by Christopher Bellavita on April 13, 2015

On April 19th, 1995 I was walking around the muddy fields of the Georgia International Horse Park in Conyers, Georgia when the rented Ryder truck exploded outside the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. It was 10:02 in Georgia. 9:02 in Oklahoma.

One hundred and sixty-seven people were murdered that day. More than 600 were injured.

This Sunday marks 20 years.

I was part of an Olympic security exercise.  My memory is partial, but I think the main exercise event promised ATF would blow up a car. Twenty years ago that was a big deal.

FBI agents were the first ones to tell us about the Oklahoma events. About a dozen federal agents were participating in the exercise. Most of the time those agency representatives — like rabid football fans – could not stand the people from other agencies.  But on that day, when they heard the news their first concern – to a man (they were all men) – was who from their agency, from anyone’s agency, was in that building.

I think that was the first time I saw public safety agencies come together as a community.

I’ve seen it happen a lot since then, but that was the first time.

I remember almost everyone knowing with all but moral certainty that Muslims were behind the attack.

The betting here is on Middle East terrorists,” declared CBS News‘ Jim Stewart just hours after the blast (4/19/95). “The fact that it was such a powerful bomb in Oklahoma City immediately drew investigators to consider deadly parallels that all have roots in the Middle East,” ABC‘s John McWethy proclaimed the same day.“It has every single earmark of the Islamic car-bombers of the Middle East,” wrote syndicated columnist Georgie Anne Geyer (Chicago Tribune, 4/21/95). “Whatever we are doing to destroy Mideast terrorism, the chief terrorist threat against Americans, has not been working,” declared the New York Times‘ A.M. Rosenthal (4/21/95)….  “Knowing that the car bomb indicates Middle Eastern terrorists at work, it’s safe to assume that their goal is to promote free-floating fear and a measure of anarchy, thereby disrupting American life,” the New York Post editorialized (4/20/95)….. An op-ed in New York Newsday by Jeff Kamen (4/20/95) complained that officials had ignored “a sizable community of Islamic fundamentalist militants in Oklahoma City,” and urged that military special forces be used against “potential terrorists”: “Shoot them now, before they get us,” he demanded. Syndicated columnist Mike Royko wrote (Chicago Tribune, 4/21/95): “I would have no objection if we picked out a country that is a likely suspect and bombed some oil fields, refineries, bridges, highways, industrial complexes. . . . If it happens to be the wrong country, well, too bad, but it’s likely it did something to deserve it anyway.”

Except for Twilight Zone episode Number 22, called The Monsters are Due on Maple Street, I believe that was the first time I saw so many opinion leaders go so uniformly crazy, so quickly.

I’ve seen it happen many times since.  I expect it to happen again.

Edye Lucas was a 22 year old single mother of two boys, Chase (2 years old)  and Colton (3 years old). Lucas worked in the Murrah Building IRS office.

[She] only intended on being up at the office for a little bit to celebrate her upcoming birthday with co-workers. So, she dropped Chase and Colton at the American Kids daycare, planning on only keeping them there part of the day. She remembered walking to the conference room to blow out the candles on her birthday cake when the bomb went off….

“I look back now and I think why didn’t I just stay home,” said Lucas [two weeks ago]. “ Why? Could have, would have, should have – and I didn’t. And what happened, happened.”

“The outpouring of love and compassion from everyone was amazing.” Lucas said that is what helped her and others heal and move on. And to remind them that they are not alone, and that their loved ones will never be forgotten.

She said both the [Oklahoma City National Memorial]…and the museum are a testament to that. And Lucas said she often finds little tokens left behind along the fence or on the chairs for Chase and Colton. And that makes her smile.

“It’s sacred ground,” said Lucas. “And it’s such an honor to have that to memorialize my children forever and ever because it’s going to be there forever.”

Somerset Maugham told this story sometime in the 1930s.  The speaker is Death:

There was a merchant in Bagdad who sent his servant to market to buy provisions and in a little while the servant came back, white and trembling, and said, Master, just now when I was in the marketplace I was jostled by a woman in the crowd and when I turned I saw it was Death that jostled me. She looked at me and made a threatening gesture, now, lend me your horse, and I will ride away from this city and avoid my fate. I will go to Samarra and there Death will not find me.

The merchant lent him his horse, and the servant mounted it, and he dug his spurs in its flanks and as fast as the horse could gallop he went.

Then the merchant went down to the marketplace and he saw me standing in the crowd and he came to me and said, Why did you make a threating getsture to my servant when you saw him this morning?

That was not a threatening gesture, I said, it was only a start of surprise. I was astonished to see him in Bagdad, for I had an appointment with him tonight in Samarra.

“Security experts generally say to always have a backup and to never pay the ransom.” However….

Filed under: Cybersecurity — by Christopher Bellavita on April 13, 2015

From Networked World:

Megacode ransom paid to decrypt server shared by 5 law enforcement departments in Maine

After a law enforcement server shared by three city (town) police departments and a sheriff’s office was infected with ransomware and the cops in Maine chose to pay a bitcoin ransom to decrypt the files, what moral of the ransomware story did the sheriff learn? Lincoln County Sheriff Todd Brackett told the Boothbay Register, “Next time, we’ll just pay the ransom on the first day and be done with it. It’s like a jail — it’s very safe and secure, but that can mean nothing if you leave the door unlocked.”….

Sheriff Brackett said he was “initially reluctant to pay the ransom” as it “goes against the grain,” but he authorized the payment [of around $300] “on the advice of specialists who were familiar with the ransomware and worked with other users it infected.”….

Looking for a bright side, Sheriff Brackett said the affected law enforcement departments are now “aware of such scams” and “how to deal with them.” More training is on the horizon, he said. “We’ll have more virus protection training where we go over how to tell if something might be a virus. Sometimes, it’s hard to tell, but you’ve got to keep an eye out for some of these documents that people (email) you. Sometimes it can be hard to tell if it contains a virus.”

Tracking down the cyberthugs behind megacode is allegedly a low priority for the FBI, which would neither confirm nor deny if it was investigating the ransomware dubbed a “common virus” by the sheriff who told WCSH6 that the FBI traced the bitcoin ransom payment to a deposit in a Swiss bank account before the “trail went cold.”

Graphic display of how disease migrates

Filed under: Public Health & Medical Care — by Christopher Bellavita on April 13, 2015

From Wired:

See How Diseases Spread in These Mesmerizing Graphics

YOU’RE AN H1N1 influenza virus—swine flu—just hanging out in Hanoi, Vietnam. But now it’s time to spread and infect. How should you go about your global epidemic? To navigate, you can use this map, which shows the paths that would take you from Hanoi to every corner of the globe. Want to go to Ft. Lauderdale? Just transfer in New York. Or, if you’d rather go to Baton Rouge, first go through Singapore and then New Orleans.

Disease spread graphic

April 10, 2015

Friday Free Forum

Filed under: General Homeland Security — by Philip J. Palin on April 10, 2015

William R. Cumming Forum

April 9, 2015

Signals: soft, hard, misleading and inspired

Filed under: General Homeland Security — by Philip J. Palin on April 9, 2015

A very rough algorithm bounces about my brain.

It asserts: [Kenya + Aden = Lower Manhattan]

This is the reductionist meaning I have constructed of the sequence:

US Embassy in Kenya (and Tanzania) attacked on August 7, 1998.


USS Cole attacked in the Port of Aden on October 12, 2000.


World Trade Center towers attacked in Lower Manhattan on September 11, 2001

The algorithm — narrative, analogy, mental map, whatever — is obviously deeply flawed, demonstrably unreliable.  Among many more problems the equation excludes too many variables and over-simplifies relationships.

But the perceived pattern persists.

So as dozens are killed in Kenya and the streets of Aden are splattered with blood, I expect something awful closer to home.

I am self-aware the expectation is ill-founded, but the felt-reality of the [K+A=LM] is predisposed to finding confirming evidence.

Given current context reinforcement is not difficult.  Since jury selection began on January 5 for the Boston Bombing Trial, we have been reminded almost daily of how much harm can so easily be done.  There is plenty more:

Two New York women were arrested for allegedly planning to build an explosive device, a federal law enforcement source said Thursday. The women, identified as Noelle Velentzas, 28, and Asia Siddiqui, 31,were arrested in connection with a plot inspired by the terrorist group ISIS and others to build a weapon of mass destruction, according to the source and a criminal complaint. They are both U.S. citizens and were roommates in the borough of Queens. The women were allegedly conspiring to build an explosive device for a terrorist attack in the United States. (MORE)

A 17-year-old Virginia student has been charged with helping recruit for ISIS, federal law enforcement officials said Wednesday… The teen, who lives in a Virginia suburb of Washington, is accused of helping a slightly older adult travel to Syria. The adult is believed to have joined ISIS there, a separate law enforcement official said. The teen is also accused of distributing ISIS messages to a network of contacts, one of the officials said. (MORE)

Social media and other technology are making it increasingly difficult to combat militants who are using such modern resources to share information and conduct operations, the head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency said on Friday…”New technologies can help groups like ISIL coordinate operations, attract new recruits, disseminate propaganda, and inspire sympathizers across the globe to act in their name,” Brennan said…”The overall threat of terrorism is greatly amplified by today’s interconnected world, where an incident in one corner of the globe can instantly spark a reaction thousands of miles away; and where a lone extremist can go online and learn how to carry out an attack without ever leaving home.” (MORE)

The conflation of the probably random with the arguably correlated — even if I assiduously avoid causation — is not restricted to terrorism.

For several years I have encouraged more sustained preparedness for a long-term outage of the electrical grid.  Tuesday afternoon there was a short-term fluctuation — in some places, brief outage — of the electrical grid in the National Capital Region.  I received over a dozen emails from folks writing some version of: “Just as you predicted.”  Well, not really… but it did catch my attention and I was not displeased by connections others were making. (MORE)

Then did you notice the recent report out of El Salvador?

Last month 481 people were murdered in El Salvador making March the country’s most deadly month for a decade as authorities struggle to cope with the collapse of a controversial gang truce. An average of 16 people were killed every day in the country, which is the size of Massachusetts and has a population of 6.1 million, confirming El Salvador’s place as one of the world’s most dangerous places outside a war zone. The death toll was 52% higher than the same period in the previous year, and included the victims of six massacres, including eight people who were killed on 29 March at a truck stop just outside the capital San Salvador in a suspected dispute between transnational drug trafficking groups. (MORE)

Here I will hypothesize causation.  This extraordinary level of violence will push migration.  Especially if the violence persists this month, an increasing number of Salvadorans will seek someplace safer.  By late spring/early summer we will be able to test my expectations against numbers observed by CBP and their Mexican peers.

But even if the number of Salvadoran emigrants increases, does this absolutely confirm the relationship I am suggesting? Probably not.  Some will argue that Tuesday’s electrical problems actually demonstrate the resilience of the current system. This is true, if you stop unwinding the scenario fairly early on. My mind clearly tends to over-generalize unlikely connections between Kenya, Aden, and me.  May this, however, help to see whatever connections do exist?

Tuesday Dan O’Connor quoted Coleridge.  Not many can craft romantic poetry on Kantian themes.  Coleridge did quite successfully.  Kant gave Coleridge his architecture.  Coleridge gave Emerson courage.  Emerson gave many of us some considerable part of our sense-of-self.  Talk about unlikely connections. Approaching death the poet spoke of diverse realities resolved. “I say realities; for reality is a thing of degrees, from the Iliad to a dream.”  Where are you — where are we — on that continuum?

April 7, 2015

“As idle as a painted ship upon a painted ocean.”

Filed under: Climate Change,Infrastructure Protection — by Dan OConnor on April 7, 2015

In the Rime of the Ancyent Marinere,  the longest major poem written by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one famous stanza has always stood out to me.

Day after day, day after day,
We stuck, nor breath nor motion;
As idle as a painted ship
Upon a painted ocean.
Water, water, everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink.

With California having approximately an 840 mile long coastline and the Pacific Ocean covering approximately one-third of the Earth’s surface, decisions, infrastructure improvements, and investment are immediately needed to  maintain California as we know it.

Water, water everywhere…

california-drought-before-after 2

In mid-March an op-ed published by Jay Famiglietti, a senior water scientist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, painted a dire picture of the state’s water crisis.   Famiglietti wrote that every year since 2011, California has lost around 12 million acre-feet of stored water. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin river basins, the combined water sources of snow, rivers, reservoirs, soil water and groundwater amounted to a volume that was 34 million acre-feet below normal levels in 2014. And there is no relief in sight. In a nutshell; California has approximately one year of stored water left.

The 25 percent cut in water consumption recently ordered by Gov. Jerry Brown raises critical, economical, and fundamental questions about what life in and the future of California will be like.  It is no great surprise that California is suffering through an unprecedented drought with no end in sight.  I say unprecedented because while we have a limited context of the region historically, geographically we have inhabited it for a short period of time.  But let us be clear: California has been artificially hydrated.  That artificiality changed the landscape and also appears to be unsustainable.

“Mother Nature didn’t intend for 40 million people to live here,” said Kevin Starr, a historian at the University of Southern California who has written extensively about this state. “This is literally a culture that since the 1880s has progressively invented, invented and reinvented itself. At what point does this invention begin to hit limits?”  Has our innovation and creativity simply delayed Malthus’ postulation?

This artificial environment has yielded tremendous prosperity though. California has built a $2.2 trillion economy.  It is the seventh largest economy in the world, more than four times what it was in 1963, when adjusted for inflation.  California also feeds much of America.  California agriculture is responsible for providing a third of the nation’s vegetables and nearly two-thirds of its fruits and nuts.  The cattle industry has and continues to be impacted as well.  Cattle, its economy, and productivity will continue to experience a significant geographic shift.

And in a just-in-time, tightly coupled, highly complex food system, micro or meta interruptions can have significant unintended and cascading consequences.

With all this agriculture, cattle, revenue, and international impact when does the emergent crisis in California become a homeland security issue?

This to me is more than a meta issue.  If one were to remove themselves from the climate change/global warming diatribe we would see an emergent crisis with little means of self-correction.  One school of thought says to let nature take its course, allowing the region’s homeostasis to seek its ecological/environmental equilibrium and return to the semi-arid geography it once was.  Another school of thought wants to introduce more technology to maintain the artificial environment and to hydrate the region.

To allow the region to naturally return to its previous state on its face is folly.  The geoengineering that California has exploited for decades cannot be easily or readily undone.   Where do those industries go?  How do we replace that agricultural and protein output?  Where do we relocate tens of millions of people?  All critical difficult leadership questions in my view.

All of these decision points are homeland security issues.  Anthropocenic activities can no longer be ignored and must be recognized as homeland security issues.

The Anthropocene era is a chronological and geologic term used to describe the period when human activities determined active, furtive, and secondary consequences on Earth’s ecosystems.  The combination of the Anthropocene era, the artificial hydration of and the earth’s cyclical climate issues have combined to create a situation that leaves California and that region in significantly dire straits.

So there are really only two courses of action.

The first option is to do what we are already doing: lots of talking, attempts to conserve, policy narratives, and legislation; pretty much everything that got us here. It is slow, bureaucratic, and highly politicized.

The other course of action it to embrace the fact that we must engineer, innovate, and refocus our homeland security dollars away from ineffective surveillance and overpriced drone programs, and towards radical infrastructure enhancement.  Private/public partnerships, investments, and active engineering must be exercised to rehydrate the region with emerging technologies, desalinization, and a host of lesser improvements.

Resilience and mitigation may have an initial sticker shock.  However, if we do not have the funding to do it right the first time, how much more will it cost to repair it?

We have exercised great fear manipulation and amplified the threat to justify programs and spending that does not diminish the threat to any great degree.  Lots of drone strikes, 78 fusion centers, trillions spent, diminution of trust, and not a great deal to show for it.  We need water, food, and economies that build resilience and capability.

painted ship upon a painted ocean


April 6, 2015

Another Opening Day has come and gone: the homeland is secure

Filed under: General Homeland Security,Humor — by Arnold Bogis on April 6, 2015

Homeland security is a lot like baseball: sometimes you win, sometimes you lose, sometimes it rains.



And don’t forget about similarities in regards to the response to natural disasters.


April 3, 2015

Friday Free Forum

Filed under: General Homeland Security — by Philip J. Palin on April 3, 2015

William R. Cumming Forum

April 2, 2015

“Du kannst übernehmen”

Filed under: General Homeland Security — by Philip J. Palin on April 2, 2015

According to what is claimed to be the cockpit voice recording, the pilot of Germanwings Flight 9525 told his co-pilot, “Du kannst übernehmen” (You can take over) as he left for the toilet.

Based on what we have been told so far, it’s easy to speculate about a still young man who felt increasingly out-of-control choosing to exercise deadly control where and when he could.  Perceived and prospective failure prompts a volatile combination of denial and over-compensation.

Compensation is a classic defense mechanism, one of eleven first identified by Sigmund Freud and his daughter. For the Freuds — Anna added considerably to her father’s original work — a defense mechanism is a psychological device for resolving conflict between the Id and Super-Ego: between instinctual or self-absorbed desire and more other-involved reason and restraint.

Freud describes the id:

It is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learned from our study of the Dreamwork and of the construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of that is of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations… It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle. (New Introductory Lectures)

Super-ego is a translation of Freud’s Über-Ich (over-I, beyond-me, transcendent-self).  It is the creation of family and society, an accretion of human experience translated into habit, moral principles, and ethical systems.  There are evolutionary foundations for our cognitive dispositions in this regard, but the specifics are taught and learned and practiced (or not).

There have always been sociopaths who indulge the id.  There have often been self-organizing groups that reject or warp received social norms. Violence is a recurring expression of their pathology.

In  1915 the world’s population was about 1.8 billion.  Today’s population is roughly 7.2 billion. Might sociopaths now be three-times more likely?

In 1915 the global population was predominantly rural, even the United States was (just barely) still a majority rural nation.  Since 1950 the global balance has fallen from 70 percent rural to under half.  Since 2008 — for the first time in human history — a majority live in cities.  Given current trends, 70 percent of the world population is expected to be urban by 2050.

Urban life tends to empower easier individuality.  In most cultures, urbanization challenges the institutions that transfer — and enforce — super-egoistic content.  Does urbanization multiply various forms of id-iocy?

Even if urban areas can be as effective as traditional rural societies in suppressing the id, the concentration of population in dense urban environments creates fatter targets, modern communications and transportation facilitates easier targeting, and contemporary tools of violence are more virulent than those of any prior age. Modern media casts its magnifying lens. So just a few id-dominant personalities can have amplified effect.

The dialectic of what the Freuds label id and super-ego arose in the earliest human communities.  For most of human history repression of the id has been a principal purpose and task of culture. Behavioral variation — good or bad — has encountered social skepticism and, often, negative sanction.  This persists.  But especially among third and fourth generation inhabitants of burgeoning cities, traditional ties are fraying and failing.

As an eccentric individual, I am glad to live in a time and place where I encounter less push-back than my trouble-making ancestors.  But I sometimes wonder if the shift from a social to individual center-of-gravity has become unsustainable.  In some cases I worry that culture has forsaken its role in building solidarity, becoming instead a self-subverting seedbed of variability.

Most of us are, at best, co-pilots. With sustained effort we claim a semblance of secondary or collaborative control over some well-defined corner of our reality.  All the rest is flux.  What do we make of the flux?  Is it frightening?  Or are we fulfilled in racing its rapids?  Are we lonely paddle boarders or part of a large team of rafters?

Have we been taught — more importantly, have we learned — the values of self-restraint and other-regard?

German is too complicated for me.  But I am told the prefix or preposition über — as in über-ich and übernehmen — is not necessarily about control.  Depending on the word to which it is attached we might hear transcendence or overcoming or elevation. On the Germanwings plane the co-pilot evidently chose to demonstrate his mastery over the machine.  He also demonstrated an absence-of-mastery over himself.

Treating symptoms is helpful, especially if there is no cure for the underlying disease. Perhaps homeland security must be satisfied with noble work analogous to hospice care. We mitigate pain as we await the inevitable.

But if we hope to advance a cure,  this will arise less from our reflex to übernehmen and emerge much more from our cultivation of über-ich.

Confederate Capital’s Conflagration

Filed under: Catastrophes — by Philip J. Palin on April 2, 2015

Richmond evacuation fire

One hundred-fifty years ago today — and tomorrow — most of the core of Richmond, Virginia was consumed in flame.  We tend to romanticize the past and we can catastrophize our present. From a homeland security perspective our current situation is much less dire than the context reported below, even as the Union was successfully reclaimed.  This is a transcript from the Richmond Whig reported in The New York Times.


The evacuation of Richmond commenced in earnest Sunday night, closed at daylight on Monday morning with a terrific conflagration, which, was kindled by the Confederate authorities wantonly and recklessly applying the torch to Shockoe warehouse and other buildings in which was stored a large quantity of tobacco. The fire spread rapidly, and it was some time before the Fire Brigade could be gotten to work. A fresh breeze was blowing from the south, and the fire swept over great space in an incredible short space of time. By noon the flames had transformed into a desert waste that portion of the city bounded between Seventh and Fifteenth streets, from Main-street to the river, comprising the main business portion. We can form no estimate at this moment of the number of houses destroyed, but public and private they will certainly number six or eight hundred.

At present we cannot do more than enumerate some of the most prominent buildings destroyed. These include the Bank of Richmond, Traders’ Bank, Bank of the Commonwealth, Bank of Virginia, Farmers’ Bank, all the banking houses, the American Hotel, the Columbian Hotel, the Enquirer building on Twelfth-street, the Dispatch Office and job rooms, corner of Thirteenth and Main streets; all that block of buildings known as Devlin’s Block; the Examiner Office, engine and machinery rooms; the Confederate Post-office Department building; the State Court-house; a fine old building situated on Capitol-square, at its Franklin-street entrance; the Mechanics’ Institute, vacated by the Confederate States War Department, and all the buildings on that square up to Eighth-street and back to Main-street; the confederate arsenal and laboratory, Seventh-street.

At sunrise on Monday morning Richmond presented a spectacle that we hope never to witness again. The last of the Confederate officials had gone; the air was lurid with the smoke and flame of hundreds of houses weltering in a sea of fire.

The streets were crowded with furniture and every description of wares, dashed down to be trampled in the mud or burned up where it lay. All the government storehouses were thrown open, and what could not be gotten off by the government was left to the people, who, everywhere ahead of the flames, rushed in, and secured immense amounts of bacon, clothing, boots, &c.

Next to the river, the destruction of property has been fearfully complete. The Danville and Petersburgh Railroad depots, and the buildings and shedding attached thereto, for the distance of half a mile from the north side of Main-street to the river, and between Eighth and Fifteenth streets, embracing upward of twenty blocks, presents one waste of smoking ruins, blackened walls and smoking chimnies.

After the surrender of the city, and its occupation by Gen. WEITZEL, about 10 o’clock, vigorous efforts were set on foot to stop the progress of the flames. The soldiers reinforced the fire brigade, and labored nobly, and with great success. The flames east on Main-street, were checked by the blowing up of the Traders’ Bank about noon.

The flames gradually died out at various points as material failed for them to feed upon; but in particular localities the work of destruction went on until towards 3 or four o’clock, when the mastery of the flames was obtained, and Richmond was safe from utter desolation.

We regret to learn that a serious loss of life resulted from the blowing up of the powder magazine on the suburbs early on Monday morning. The shock was tremendous, jarring every house in the city, extinguishing the gas, and breaking a great quantity of glass in dwellings…. From that moment law and order ceased to exist; chaos came, and a Pandemonium reigned.  MORE

April 1, 2015

Buhari elected in Nigeria

Filed under: International HLS — by Philip J. Palin on April 1, 2015

The election of the opposition candidate in Nigeria is a positive signal regarding prospects for democracy in Africa’s most populace nation.  The election of a retired army general with a predisposition to action promises to contrast sharply with the sometimes bizarre passivity of the current Nigerian president.  The election of a Muslim in a nation closely divided between Christians and Muslims,  plagued by Salafist violence, opens important opportunities for the entire region.

It is significant — and encouraging — that Buhari won in several states with a Christian majority.  (See map)

Less positive assessments could be offered of equal credence.  But as our friend Hegel has argued, “These do not contradict one another, one is as necessary as the other; and constitutes the life of the whole.”

Given the place of Africa in previous and prospective terrorist threats to the United States, the follow-on to this election is likely to have significant homeland security implications.

Lots of news coverage.  Vanguard, one of the leading Nigerian newspapers, is a reasonable place to start.  The Guardian is another respected outlet. Punch claims to have the most readers.

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