Tweet This Post
Comment by William R. Cumming
June 5, 2015 @ 6:06 am
There are over 180 federal organizational units. What emergency assignments do these units have NOW? How would you find out? Does FEMA assigned the COG and COOP mission know? Does Congress know?
Has the Congress ever done a survey of Emergency Preparedness?
Yes! 1976 done by the Joint Committee on Defense Production eliminated in 1977.
For an extract of the results of that survey go to:
Should there be a Committee or Permanent Joint Committee in the Congress that has oversight to Federal and National Preparedness? Has the existing Congressional Committee system ever held such oversight? NO, IMO.
Example: No Congressional hearing ever on Executive Order 12656 as amended. That E.O. issue in November 1988.
COG= Continuity of Government
COOP= Continuity of Operations
June 5, 2015 @ 6:25 am
The people who all answer the phone WHITE HOUSE:
The Executive Office of the President (EOPOTUS or EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the current President of the United States and multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, currently Denis McDonough. The size of the White House staff has increased dramatically since 1939, and has grown to include an array of policy experts in various fields.
2.1 White House Office
3 See also
5 External links
In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts (led by Dr. Amanda Townsend) that were known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP, which reported directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two sub units at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today’s Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt’s successors.
The Eisenhower Executive Office Building at night.
Roosevelt’s efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the nineteenth century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant’s presidency (1869–1877), the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one “secretary to the president” (then the title of the president’s chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, the size of the staff expanded to thirty-one, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover’s presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government’s policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his “brains trust” of top advisers, although working directly for the President, often were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions.
From 1939 through the present, the situation changed dramatically. New units within the EOP were created, some by statute, some by executive order of the president. Among the most important are the Council of Economic Advisers (1946), the National Security Council and its staff (1947), the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (1963), the Council on Environmental Quality (1970), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (1976), the Office of Administration (1977), and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (1989). Under George W. Bush, additional units were added, such as the Office of Homeland Security (2001), which later became a Cabinet department, and the Office of Faith-based and Community Initiatives (2001). Precise estimates as to the size and budget of the EOP are difficult to come by. Many people who work on the staff are “detailed” from other federal departments and agencies, and budgetary expenses are often charged elsewhere, for example Defense Department staff for the White House Military Office. Ballpark estimates indicate some 2,000 to 2,500 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush’s budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).
Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.
Very few EOP (Executive Office of the President) officials are required to be confirmed by the U.S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions to this rule (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative). The core White House Staff appointments do not require Senate approval. The staff of the Executive Office of the President is managed by the White House Chief of Staff.
The information in the following table is current as of April 12, 2014. Only principal executives are listed; for subordinate officers, see individual office pages.
Agency Principal executive Incumbent
Council of Economic Advisers Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers Jason Furman
National Security Council Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Susan Rice
Council on Environmental Quality Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality Michael Boots
Executive Residence staff White House Chief Usher Angella Reid
Office of Administration Deputy Assistant to the President and Director of the Office of Administration Cathy Solomon
Office of Management and Budget Director of the Office of Management and Budget Shaun Donovan
Office of National Drug Control Policy Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy Michael Botticelli
Office of Science and Technology Policy Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy Dr. John Holdren
Office of the United States Trade Representative United States Trade Representative Michael Froman
Office of the Vice President of the United States Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff to the Vice President Steve Ricchetti
White House Office Assistant to the President and White House Chief of Staff Denis McDonough
White House Office
Office of the Chief of Staff
Office of the National Security Advisor
Domestic Policy Council
National Economic Council
Office of Cabinet Affairs
Office of Communications
Office of Information Technology
Office of Digital Strategy
Office of the First Lady
Office of Legislative Affairs
Office of Management and Administration
Office of Political Strategy and Outreach
Office of Presidential Personnel
Office of Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs
Office of Scheduling and Advance
Office of the Staff Secretary
Oval Office operations
White House Counsel
Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (April 25, 1939). “Message to Congress on the Reorganization Act”. John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project (Santa Barbara: University of California). Retrieved May 6, 2011.
Mosher, Frederick C. (1975). American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future (2nd ed.). Birmingham: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-4829-8.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (May 9, 1939). “Message to Congress on Plan II to Implement the Reorganization Act”. John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project (Santa Barbara: University of California). Retrieved May 6, 2011. The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education.
Relyea, Harold C. (March 17, 2008). “The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview” (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
Burke, John P. “Administration of the White House”. Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
“Executive Office of the President”. The White House. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
June 5, 2015 @ 6:34 am
Let’s go back to September 11, 2001!
IMO Flt 93 which was crashed by its passengers in Western Pennslyvania after they answered the call of LET’S ROLL to fight the hijackers was headed to the Caspital not the White House. Recently of course Hollywood films and recent events reveal how poorly the Secret Service defends the White House.
But on September 11th it was revealed by the TV cameras that given an order to evacuate, the WH staff largely had to run for cover. Now remember unclassified estimates indicate flight times of submarine launched cruise and ballistic missiles from off-shore the Eastern Seaboard of the US to be from 15-30 minutes flight time.
So what has changed since that tragic date? Almost nothing.
Yes the USA leadership is much like a teenage driver that has NO FEAR OF DRIVING BECAUSE THEY ARE ACT LIKE THEY ARE INDESTRUCTIBLE.
What do you think?
June 5, 2015 @ 6:36 am
Was Dick Cheney correct to believe he should stay airborne on 9/11 and the President hidden?
June 5, 2015 @ 6:38 am
How many of the federal officials now involved in HS programs, functions, and activities plan to continue in related fields as of January 21, 2017?
June 5, 2015 @ 11:55 am
An Associate Director of OMB can make a $50M cut in a department or agencies budget without prior approval. Is that real power or what?
Comment by Tom Russo
June 5, 2015 @ 4:29 pm
It’s a racket! Where are the adults?
Comment by Christopher Tingus
June 6, 2015 @ 5:43 am
Saturday, June 6, 2015…and today, God Bless all those who gave their Life or limb and more on the beaches and elsewhere to protect our Judeo-Christian nation and its principles and our Constitution and to enable each of us to stand firm against the travesties we see today especially by those who have taken the oath of office like both Clintons and completely and legally disregard of country –
As I have stated to the dislike of at least a few, such corrupt men and women led by a small elite group who like Barry Obama are divisive and contrary to the American way – War looms ahead! God Bless this once great nation and from what I can gather, an apathetic and indolent populace best described as ignorant who abuse their precious vote electing these self-serving politicians and their empty political rhetoric —
Thank God we today still have folks as those at NSA who know better and unfortunately a Congress who chooses to convey information to companies who have no way of protecting personal information against hackers –
Unless the populace places the meaningless political party affiliations and elects the individual who will lead our nation and do so with commitment and clarity in honesty and strength, an America without strong arsenal only will allow further global uncertainty and Tehran will cause even far many more challenges with WMD in hand only to be finally dealt a severe blow by Karl Theordor zu Guttenberg and the Assyrians who have been nurturing Middle East allies and selling billions in weaponry to sovereign regional nations to surround Tehran and become the dominate force in the Middle East filling the void of a weakened America – how unfortunate —
God Bless all those this morning 71 years ago who gave their Life for our nation at the hands of German machine guns spraying bullets and wiping out 85% of the 29th in the first 15 minutes — how tragic and we honor you all who have served with such gallantry! (Thank you)
“Main Street USA”
June 7, 2015 @ 6:40 am
“Your cities are burned with fire” – Isaiah 1:7 is my reading this week relative to Homeland Security where instead of being concerned about the morale of DHS and other government personnel who have now been hacked w/no retaliation towards China whatsoever and those with clearances can possibly now be blackmailed by foreign interests –
In my readings and research and utmost support that NSA as our real Patriots retain information rather than a dizzy Congress and Senate forwarding information to companies to retain when they have little protection in their ability to challenge a hacker, it is this Barry Obama and good ‘ol Ms. Hillary no matter their party and the “race war” and undermining of our first responders (esteemed police officers) willing to respond to our desperate calls for help –
First, my readings in Biblical verse this week in this Judeo-Christian nation despite others, in 1 Thessalonians 5:21 and in Jeremiah 17:5, we begin with “Cursed be the man that trusteth in man” – in essence advising we should believe in God and not the divisiveness and self-serving agenda of Barry Obama and good ‘ol Ms. Hillary and Billy boy who as he said, ‘must pay the bills” and neither could care ’bout the USA, just amassing monies and deleting emails —
Ms. Hillary says, “What difference does it make” – well, in the eys of the Lord, a great deal of difference and while it is obvious that they, too see the ignorance and apathy of those voting, in Isaiah 30:8: “Now go, write it before them in table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for ever and ever” – unfortunately while folks don’t want to hear Life’s woes and challenges and are so indolent in their mannerisms, in verse 10: “Which say to seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits” – in essence, few reading this summer Biblical verse and the truth of the day, but rather, the empty rhetoric spewed by the “Chicago-Hollywood-Washington charade” which is pointing us dead ahead into much conflagration — a Washington so corrupt and leaderless —
While Isaiah was said to be cut in half because of the Biblical messages he attempted to bring to the people and what God’s messages are to his children, naw, folks did not want to listen and today when seeing how quickly God’s word and warnings, his laws are so easily thrown aside, well, read verse 11 and weep for in pushing aside these teachings of God, deceit overtakes what John (17:17) clearly states that it is only God’s word which speaks the truth –
Barry Obama says the people of Baltimore want the truth…Do you really believe this – no way and further, the Apostle Paul wrote that the Old Testament was given to us as a mentoring tool however few are attentive and we have an executive White and a Justice department seeking injustice and divisiveness….
I will say this again — lawlessness is not noble or justified anyplace – no matter who is involved….our border remains open like few other countries and we have a government in place which seeks to circumvent our values — laws must be enforced and that’s the bottom line and if not and those seeking criminal ways, well, the failure to enforce laws as we have seen in Baltimore and hold folks accountable will encourage other criminals as they see as ignorant as they may be that lawlessness gets results and whether upfront or behind the scenes, from the WH down, the Justice Department seeks Not justice and upholding of laws nor does the FBI who should be investigating with full vigor, Billy and good ‘ol Ms. Hillary and their daughter’s Clinton Foundation — we see this bias and hatred and an attack from within which we have been forewarned so you have little excuse unless you choose to be under the hand of tyrant:
Isaiah 1:5: “(Y)e will revolt more and more: THE WHOLE HEAD IS SICK, AND THE WHOLE HEART FAINT” –
I REPEAT ISAIAH 1:5:
“(Y)E WILL REVOLT MORE AND MORE: THE WHOLE HEAD IS SICK, AND THE WHOLE HEART FAINT” –
As James Madison wrote to us today in (1785):
“If tyranny and oppression come to this land, it will be under the guise of fighting a foreign enemy. But, in reality, it will be an Enemy from within” –
In 1775, Samuel Adams wrote to us today and clearly stated:
“No People will tamely surrender their Liberties, nor can they be easily subdued, when knowledge is wide spread and Virtue is preserved. On the Contrary, when People are unwisely ignorant, and debauched in their Manners, they will sink under their own weight without Aid of foreign invaders” –
and most importantly before I quote Frederick Douglass who I often quote and hold in high esteem, pacifying crowds or fearing rioters clearly speaks to our failings and a sitting executive White House who has been hell bent from its first days to promote divisiveness rather than assure the innocent citizens of Baltimore and good citizens throughout the United States of America that laws are adopted to be enforced and while folks are not at all attentive to (verses 4-5):
“Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have FORSAKEN THE LORD, they have provoked the Holy One of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward. Why should ye be stricken any more?” –
Frederick Douglass states clearly:
“Find out just what People will submit to, and you have found the exact amount of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them; and these will continue until they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress” –
So it is those who seek divisiveness and the void in real leadership today which convinces me that as a nation and people, if we do not repent and become educated and remain apathetic and darn lazy….WAR looms ahead for the history of man cites many who have preferred raising the sword rather than looking at the far many more similarities than differences we as God’s children share —
God Bless America!
“Main Street USA”
June 7, 2015 @ 7:24 am
Perhaps a new motto for HS? Homeland Security starts with each of US!
Are you prepared? Remember the FEDS cannot possibly show up in any catastrophe for the FIRST THREE DAYS in any meaningful way!
THE STATES ARE NOT REALLY DESIGNED TO BE RESPONDERS IMO!
AND THE LOCALS MAY LACK CAPABILITY!
June 7, 2015 @ 8:18 am
Apparently Brad Keiserman, former Chief Counsel of FEMA, career COAST GUARD officer and close ally of Craig Fugate, has announced his departure from the Federal Government and will be joining the leadership of the ARC [American Red Cross] as they attempt to address the fundamental flaw in ARC ops–specifically NO Ability to obtain donations for PREPAREDNESS before the BOOM!
Congressional oversight of the ARC has been sporadic for that federally charted organization.
Did you know that George Elsey, former head of ARC, was considered by the Carter Administration to be the first Director of the then independent Executive Agency FEMA. Rumor has it that Elsey and over a dozen others turned down the job before John W. Macy was selected.
June 7, 2015 @ 8:28 am
Extract from Wiki:
Born in Chicago, John Macy, received a B.A. from Wesleyan University in 1938. In 1938 Macy moved to Washington, D.C. where he began his government service and studied at American University. He worked as an intern at the National Institute of Public Affairs from 1938–1939 and later became an administrative aide of the Social Security Board (1939–1940).
From 1940 to 1942, he was a personnel specialist for the War Department in Washington and Chicago. From 1942 to 1943 he became the assistant director of civilian personnel. He enlisted during World War II, served in the U.S. Army from 1943 to 1946, and attained the rank of captain fighting in the China theater. In 1944, he married Joyce Hagen. After the war, he returned to the War Department as director of civilian personnel.
From 1947 to 1951, Macy was the organization and personnel director for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Los Alamos, New Mexico. From 1951 to 1953, Macy was the special assistant to the Under Secretary of the Army.
In 1953, he was appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States Civil Service Commission (CSC). He held this post until 1958. He left government service in 1958 to act as the executive vice-president of his alma mater, Wesleyan University.
President John F. Kennedy asked Macy to return to the Civil Service Commission in 1961, and Macy chaired the commission through Kennedy and Johnson Administrations. He called for federal salaries to be put on par with private industry salaries. It was during this period that Macy spoke out against sexual and racial discrimination in the federal government. Macy was an adamant supporter of the ban on homosexual employment by the federal government. He wrote The Mattachine Society of Washington, D.C. ( 2/25/66): “Pertinent considerations here are the revulsion of other (federal) employees by homosexual conduct and the consequent disruption of service efficiency , the apprehension caused other employees of homosexual advances, solicitations or assaults, the unavoidable subjection of the sexual deviate to erotic stimulation (on-the-job)”. As head of the CSC, he was also a named defendant in an early gay-rights case, Norton v. Macy. During the Johnson Administration, Macy also directed the White House Personnel Appointment Office.
Macy left the CSC in 1969 and served as president for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (1969–1972). His work landed him on the master list of Nixon political opponents. Later, he ran the Council of Better Business Bureaus (1972–1979).
In 1979, President Jimmy Carter nominated Macy to became the first Senate-confirmed director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. He served in that position until 1981.
Macy also authored several books, including Public Service: Human Side of Government (1971) and To Irrigate a Wasteland (1974).
A civil servant with a career spanning six different decades, John Macy died in McLean, Virginia.
In 1988, the U.S. Army established the John W. Macy, Jr., Award that recognizes demonstrated excellence in the leadership of civilians by an Army military or civilian supervisor. The first awardee was John T. Lovo, Director of Engineering and Housing for the US Army in Munich, Germany.
June 7, 2015 @ 8:38 am
Macy served from July 1979 to January 1981 as the Senate Confirmed Director of FEMA.
Several historically significant events occurred on his watch.
Mt. St. Helens erupted in May 1980. The Mariel Boatlift of Cuban refugees also occurred. And also several significant hurricanes made landfall.
Macy’s major policy contribution to EM and FEMA was to insist that generalists not specialists should be the dominant employee skill.
He also opposed placement of SUPERFUND in FEMA because it was NOT an emergency program. NO OFFICIAL RECORDS WERE FOUND IN MACY’S OFFICE WHEN HE DEPARTED ON JANUARY 20TH NOR WERE ANY RECORDS PERMANENTLY ARCHIVED.
June 8, 2015 @ 5:49 am
CBS had a follow on 60-Minutes story last night on NFIP Storm Sandy claims! N.B. Storm Sandy was NOT a hurricane at landfall.
It revealed at the end that Brad Keiserman was leaving FEMA for the ARC [American Red Cross]!
Brad [whom I have never met in person or even talked to] had been featured in the March Sixty Minutes as the new claims CZAR for the NFIP. He revealed, however, in this story that his power was largely constrained by management. Perhaps the reason he was leaving?
DHS has a bad habit of throwing the young and innocent to the wolves. Best example? Juliette Kayyem as DHS spokes person and troubleshooter on the BP GOM spill. Wonder if her book will discuss that feature of her astounding career.
Anyhow next Friday on FFF will discuss some history of the ARC, some personal and some not.
Did you know that the ARC has shrunk from 1700 local chapters to 700 in last two decades? Are all disasters local?
June 10, 2015 @ 8:02 am
Many readers of this blog know that for over a decade I have recommended that all coastal flood mapping for the NFIP be transferred to NOAA a science based federal sub-cabinet agency [Department of Commerce of which NOAA has two thirds of the staff and funding of the Department] and tha inland/riverine mapping be a federally funded and supervise function of the States.
This recommendation is based on many considerations but includes corruption and negligence in NFIP flood mapping as currently conducted.
Now NOAA has a new website on coastal flood exposure:
June 10, 2015 @ 8:13 am
An important faculty change has occurred. FEW IN THE USA BUT IN PARTICULAR UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND EMERGENCY PUBLIC INFORMATION.
One person who does is Professor Jeannette Sutton, PhD., now an Assistant professor in the Department of Communications at the University of Kentucky and the newly established Risk and
Disaster Communication Center [RDCC]. The RDCC facilitates interdisciplinary conversations and conducts research to support risk communicators. Professor Sutton studies disaster warnings and risk communications via Twitter and other online social networks.
She has an important article published in the May 2015 issue of the NATURAL HAZARDS OBSERVER published by the University of Colorado. That journal is available free on-line. The article is entitled DISASTER COMMUNICATION!
June 10, 2015 @ 8:26 am
P.S. In 1970 40% of all undergraduate B.A.s were degrees in English! In 2010 almost 30% of undergrad B.A.s were COMMUNICATIONS MAJORS. English majors about 15%!
Oddly perhaps few are familiar with the fact that Crisis Communications can involve life and death info and PARs [protective action recommendations.
IT IS NOT WHAT YOU KNOW THAT MAY KILL YOU, OR EVEN WHAT YOU DON’T KNOW, BUT WHAT YOU THINK YOU KNOW AND DON’T KNOW!
June 10, 2015 @ 8:34 am
Wiki extract discussing one branch of crisis communication:
Crisis communication is a sub-specialty of the public relations profession that is designed to protect and defend an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. Communication scholars define crisis communication as “the perception of an unpredictable event that threatens important expectancies of stakeholders and can seriously impact an organization’s performance and generate negative outcomes.”
Meaning is a socially constructed thing; because of this, the way that the stakeholders of an organization view an event (positively, neutrally, or negatively) is a major contributing factor to whether the event will become a crisis. Additionally, it is important to separate a true crisis situation from an incident. The term crisis “should be reserved for serious events that require careful attention from management.”
Crisis management has been defined as “a set of factors designed to combat crises and to lessen the actual damages inflicted.” Crisis management should not merely be reactionary; it should also consist of preventative measures and preparation in anticipation of potential crises. Effective crisis management has the potential to greatly reduce the amount of damage the organization receives as a result of the crisis, and may even prevent an incident from ever developing into a crisis.
1 Categories of crisis management
2 Crisis communication tactics
3 Landmark crisis communication case studies
5 References and external links
June 10, 2015 @ 8:40 am
And Phil! Not sure of how many classics majors produced annually in the U.S.A. and elsewhere. Surely not a major in profit-making colleges and universities?
But wondering why Minoan Culture and Pompei almost the only ones discussed in context of disasters and their impacts on the classical world. Wondering why?
Perhaps a book Phil?
June 10, 2015 @ 3:47 pm
I have been quite involved with our “local” Red Cross chapter so your note “Did you know that the ARC has shrunk from 1700 local chapters to 700 in last two decades? Are all disasters local?” caught my attention.
The centralized model makes the chapter perceived as less than a “local” chapter. The executive director’s primary role is fund-raising and those in response roles have quite large terror-ities to oversee and respond. Anyone getting burned out? Not surprised.
It’s a catch-22. Less localization leads to less local contribution so more emphasis on fund-raising on the local executive. Disasters remain local but response by Red Cross standards is regionalized.
June 11, 2015 @ 6:02 am
Thanks Tom and stay tuned!
June 11, 2015 @ 11:13 pm
Hackers nabbed data on every federal employee, union claims
truly not a surprise….so disheartening and such a void in any leadership or retaliation to those seeking to commit such felony against another individual’s private information:
June 12, 2015 @ 12:14 am
Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (/?f?l?r/; July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor.
Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as “Spaceship Earth”, ephemeralization, and synergetic. He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were later named by scientists for their structural and mathematical resemblance to geodesic spheres.
Buckminster Fuller was the second president of Mensa from 1974 to 1983.
Guinea Pig B:
I AM NOW CLOSE TO 88 and I am confident that the only thing important about me is that I am an average healthy human. I am also a living case history of a thoroughly documented, half-century, search-and-research project designed to discover what, if anything, an unknown, moneyless individual, with a dependent wife and newborn child, might be able to do effectively on behalf of all humanity that could not be accomplished by great nations, great religions or private enterprise, no matter how rich or powerfully armed.
— Bucky Fuller, 1983
1.2 Wartime experience
1.3 Depression and epiphany
1.5 Geodesic domes
1.6 Best-known work
1.7 World stage
1.9 Last filmed appearance
2 Philosophy and worldview
3 Major design projects
3.1 The geodesic dome
3.4 Dymaxion map and World Game
5 Language and neologisms
6 Concepts and buildings
7 Influence and legacy
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Fuller was born on July 12, 1895, in Milton, Massachusetts, the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews, and also the grandnephew of the American Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller. He attended Froebelian Kindergarten. Spending much of his youth on Bear Island, in Penobscot Bay off the coast of Maine, he had trouble with geometry, being unable to understand the abstraction necessary to imagine that a chalk dot on the blackboard represented a mathematical point, or that an imperfectly drawn line with an arrow on the end was meant to stretch off to infinity. He often made items from materials he brought home from the woods, and sometimes made his own tools. He experimented with designing a new apparatus for human propulsion of small boats. By the age of 12 he had “invented” a ‘push pull’ system for propelling a row boat through the use of an inverted umbrella connected to the transom with a simple oar lock which allowed the user to face forward to point the boat toward its destination. Later in life Fuller took exception to the term “invention”.
Years later, he decided that this sort of experience had provided him with not only an interest in design, but also a habit of being familiar with and knowledgeable about the materials that his later projects would require. Fuller earned a machinist’s certification, and knew how to use the press brake, stretch press, and other tools and equipment used in the sheet metal trade.
Fuller attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts, and after that began studying at Harvard University, where he was affiliated with Adams House. He was expelled from Harvard twice: first for spending all his money partying with a vaudeville troupe, and then, after having been readmitted, for his “irresponsibility and lack of interest.” By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment.
Between his sessions at Harvard, Fuller worked in Canada as a mechanic in a textile mill, and later as a laborer in the meat-packing industry. He also served in the U.S. Navy in World War I, as a shipboard radio operator, as an editor of a publication, and as a crash rescue boat commander. After discharge, he worked again in the meat packing industry, acquiring management experience. In 1917, he married Anne Hewlett. During the early 1920s, he and his father-in-law developed the Stockade Building System for producing light-weight, weatherproof, and fireproof housing—although the company would ultimately fail in 1927.
Depression and epiphany
Buckminster Fuller recalled 1927 as a pivotal year of his life. Fuller was still feeling responsible for the death of his daughter Alexandra, who had died in 1922 from complications from polio and spinal meningitis just prior to her fourth birthday. Fuller felt a personal responsibility for her death, wondering if her death may have been caused by the Fullers’ damp and drafty living conditions. This provided motivation for Fuller’s involvement in Stockade Building Systems, a business which aimed to provide affordable, efficient housing.
In 1927 Fuller, then aged 32, lost his job as president of Stockade. The Fuller family had no savings to fall back upon, and the birth of their daughter Allegra in 1927 added to the financial challenges. Fuller was drinking heavily and reflecting upon the solution to his family’s struggles on long walks around Chicago. During the autumn of 1927, Fuller contemplated suicide, so that his family could benefit from a life insurance payment.
Fuller said that he had experienced a profound incident which would provide direction and purpose for his life. He felt as though he was suspended several feet above the ground enclosed in a white sphere of light. A voice spoke directly to Fuller, and declared:
From now on you need never await temporal attestation to your thought. You think the truth. You do not have the right to eliminate yourself. You do not belong to you. You belong to Universe. Your significance will remain forever obscure to you, but you may assume that you are fulfilling your role if you apply yourself to converting your experiences to the highest advantage of others.
Fuller stated that this experience led to a profound re-examination of his life. He ultimately chose to embark on “an experiment, to find what a single individual [could] contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity.”
Speaking to audiences later in life, Fuller would regularly recount the story of his Lake Michigan experience, and its transformative impact on his life. Historians have been unable to identify direct evidence for this experience within the 1927 papers of Fuller’s Chronofile archives, housed at Stanford University. Stanford historian Barry Katz suggests that the suicide story may be a myth which Fuller constructed later in life, to summarize this formative period of his career.
In 1927 Fuller resolved to think independently which included a commitment to “the search for the principles governing the universe and help advance the evolution of humanity in accordance with them… finding ways of doing more with less to the end that all people everywhere can have more and more.” By 1928, Fuller was living in Greenwich Village and spending much of his time at the popular café Romany Marie’s, where he had spent an evening in conversation with Marie and Eugene O’Neill several years earlier. Fuller accepted a job decorating the interior of the café in exchange for meals, giving informal lectures several times a week, and models of the Dymaxion house were exhibited at the café. Isamu Noguchi arrived during 1929—Constantin Brâncu?i, an old friend of Marie’s, had directed him there[—and Noguchi and Fuller were soon collaborating on several projects, including the modeling of the Dymaxion car based on recent work by Aurel Persu. It was the beginning of their lifelong friendship.
Fuller taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina during the summers of 1948 and 1949, serving as its Summer Institute director in 1949. There, with the support of a group of professors and students, he began reinventing a project that would make him famous: the geodesic dome. Although the geodesic dome had been created some 30 years earlier by Dr. Walther Bauersfeld, Fuller was awarded United States patents. He is credited for popularizing this type of structure.
One of his early models was first constructed in 1945 at Bennington College in Vermont, where he frequently lectured. In 1949, he erected his first geodesic dome building that could sustain its own weight with no practical limits. It was 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter and constructed of aluminium aircraft tubing and a vinyl-plastic skin, in the form of an icosahedron. To prove his design, Fuller suspended from the structure’s framework several students who had helped him build it. The U.S. government recognized the importance of his work, and employed his firm Geodesics, Inc. in Raleigh, North Carolina to make small domes for the Marines. Within a few years there were thousands of these domes around the world.
Fuller began working with architect Shoji Sadao in 1954, and in 1964 they co-founded the architectural firm Fuller & Sadao Inc., whose first project was to design the large geodesic dome for the U.S. Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal. Fuller’s first “continuous tension – discontinuous compression” geodesic dome (full sphere in this case) was constructed at the University of Oregon Architecture School in 1959 with the help of students. These continuous tension – discontinuous compression structures featured single force compression members (no flexure or bending moments) that did not touch each other and were ‘suspended’ by the tensional members.
For the next half-century, Fuller developed many ideas, designs and inventions, particularly regarding practical, inexpensive shelter and transportation. He documented his life, philosophy and ideas scrupulously by a daily diary (later called the Dymaxion Chronofile), and by twenty-eight publications. Fuller financed some of his experiments with inherited funds, sometimes augmented by funds invested by his collaborators, one example being the Dymaxion car project.
The Montreal Biosphère by Buckminster Fuller, 1967
International recognition began with the success of huge geodesic domes during the 1950s. Fuller lectured at NC State University in Raleigh in 1949, where he met James Fitzgibbon, who would become a close friend and colleague. Fitzgibbon was director of Geodesics, Inc. and Synergetics, Inc. the first licensees to design geodesic domes. Thomas C. Howard was lead designer, architect and engineer for both companies. In 1964 Fuller co-founded the architectural firm Fuller & Sadao Inc., with Shoji Sadao. From 1959 to 1970, Fuller taught at Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIU). Beginning as an assistant professor, he gained full professorship in 1968, in the School of Art and Design. Working as a designer, scientist, developer, and writer, he lectured for many years around the world. He collaborated at SIU with the designer John McHale. In 1965, Fuller inaugurated the World Design Science Decade (1965 to 1975) at the meeting of the International Union of Architects in Paris, which was, in his own words, devoted to “applying the principles of science to solving the problems of humanity.” Later in his SIU tenure, Fuller was also a visiting professor at SIU Edwardsville, where he designed the dome for the campus Religious Center.
Fuller believed human societies would soon rely mainly on renewable sources of energy, such as solar- and wind-derived electricity. He hoped for an age of “omni-successful education and sustenance of all humanity.” Fuller referred to himself as “the property of universe” and during one radio interview he gave later in life, declared himself and his work “the property of all humanity”. For his lifetime of work, the American Humanist Association named him the 1969 Humanist of the Year.
In 1976, Fuller was a key participant at UN Habitat I, the first UN forum on human settlements.
Fuller was awarded 28 United States patents and many honorary doctorates. In 1960, he was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal from The Franklin Institute. Fuller was elected as an honorary member of Phi Beta Kappa in 1967, on the occasion of the 50th year reunion of his Harvard class of 1917 (from which he was expelled in his first year). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968. In 1968 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full Academician in 1970. In 1970 he received the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects. He also received numerous other awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom presented to him on February 23, 1983 by President Ronald Reagan.
Last filmed appearance
Fuller’s last filmed interview took place on April 3, 1983, in which he presented his analysis of Simon Rodia’s Watts Towers as a unique embodiment of the structural principles found in nature. Portions of this interview appear in I Build the Tower, a documentary film on Rodia’s architectural masterpiece.
Fuller died on July 1, 1983, 11 days before his 88th birthday. During the period leading up to his death, his wife had been lying comatose in a Los Angeles hospital, dying of cancer. It was while visiting her there that he exclaimed, at a certain point: “She is squeezing my hand!” He then stood up, suffered a heart attack, and died an hour later, at age 87. His wife of 66 years died 36 hours later. They are buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Philosophy and worldview
The grandson of Unitarian minister Arthur Buckminster Fuller, R. Buckminster Fuller was also Unitarian. Buckminster Fuller was an early environmental activist. He was very aware of the finite resources the planet has to offer, and promoted a principle that he termed “ephemeralization”, which, in essence—according to futurist and Fuller disciple Stewart Brand—Fuller coined to mean “doing more with less”. Resources and waste material from cruder products could be recycled into making more valuable products, increasing the efficiency of the entire process. Fuller also introduced synergetics, an encompassing term which he used broadly as a metaphoric language for communicating experiences using geometric concepts and, more specifically, to reference the empirical study of systems in transformation, with an emphasis on total system behavior unpredicted by the behavior of any isolated components. Fuller coined this term long before the term synergy became popular.
Fuller was a pioneer in thinking globally, and he explored principles of energy and material efficiency in the fields of architecture, engineering and design. He cited François de Chardenedes’ opinion that petroleum, from the standpoint of its replacement cost out of our current energy “budget” (essentially, the net incoming solar flux), had cost nature “over a million dollars” per U.S. gallon (US$300,000 per litre) to produce. From this point of view, its use as a transportation fuel by people commuting to work represents a huge net loss compared to their earnings. An encapsulation quotation of his views might be, “There is no energy crisis, only a crisis of ignorance.”
Fuller was concerned about sustainability and about human survival under the existing socio-economic system, yet remained optimistic about humanity’s future. Defining wealth in terms of knowledge, as the “technological ability to protect, nurture, support, and accommodate all growth needs of life,” his analysis of the condition of “Spaceship Earth” caused him to conclude that at a certain time during the 1970s, humanity had attained an unprecedented state. He was convinced that the accumulation of relevant knowledge, combined with the quantities of major recyclable resources that had already been extracted from the earth, had attained a critical level, such that competition for necessities was not necessary anymore. Cooperation had become the optimum survival strategy. “Selfishness,” he declared, “is unnecessary and hence-forth unrationalizable…. War is obsolete.” He criticized previous utopian schemes as too exclusive, and thought this was a major source of their failure. To work, he thought that a utopia needed to include everyone.
So it is not surprising that he and others of his stature were attracted by Korzybski’s ideas in general semantics. General semantics is a discipline of mind that seeks to unify persons and nations by changing their worldview reaction and the philosophy of their expression. In the 1950s Fuller attended seminars and workshops organized by the Institute of General Semantics, and he delivered the annual Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture in 1955. Korzybski is mentioned in the Introduction of his book Synergetics. The two gentlemen shared a remarkable amount of similarity in their formulations of general semantics.
In his 1970 book I Seem To Be a Verb, he wrote: “I live on Earth at present, and I don’t know what I am. I know that I am not a category. I am not a thing—a noun. I seem to be a verb, an evolutionary process—an integral function of the universe.”
Fuller wrote that the natural analytic geometry of the universe was based on arrays of tetrahedra. He developed this in several ways, from the close-packing of spheres and the number of compressive or tensile members required to stabilize an object in space. One confirming result was that the strongest possible homogeneous truss is cyclically tetrahedral.
He had become a guru of the design, architecture, and ‘alternative’ communities, such as Drop City, the community of experimental artists to whom he awarded the 1966 “Dymaxion Award” for “poetically economic” domed living structures.
Major design projects
A geodesic sphere
The geodesic dome
Fuller was most famous for his lattice shell structures – geodesic domes, which have been used as parts of military radar stations, civic buildings, environmental protest camps and exhibition attractions. An examination of the geodesic design by Walther Bauersfeld for the Zeiss-Planetarium, built some 20 years prior to Fuller’s work, reveals that Fuller’s Geodesic Dome patent (U.S. 2,682,235; awarded in 1954), follows the same design as Bauersfeld’s.
Their construction is based on extending some basic principles to build simple “tensegrity” structures (tetrahedron, octahedron, and the closest packing of spheres), making them lightweight and stable. The geodesic dome was a result of Fuller’s exploration of nature’s constructing principles to find design solutions. The Fuller Dome is referenced in the Hugo Award-winning novel Stand on Zanzibar by John Brunner, in which a geodesic dome is said to cover the entire island of Manhattan, and it floats on air due to the hot-air balloon effect of the large air-mass under the dome (and perhaps its construction of lightweight materials).
Main article: Dymaxion car
With such a vehicle at our disposal, [Fuller] felt that human travel, like that of birds, would nolonger be confined to airports, roads, and other bureaucratic boundaries, and that autonomous free-thinking human beings could live and prosper wherever they chose.
— Lloyd S. Sieden, Bucky Fuller’s Universe, 2000
To his young daughter Allegra:
Fuller described the Dymaxion as a “zoom-mobile, explaining that it could hop off the road at will, fly about, then, as deftly as a bird, settle back into a place in traffic.”
The Dymaxion car, c.1933, artist Diego Rivera shown entering the car, carrying coat
The Dymaxion car was a vehicle designed by Fuller, featured prominently at Chicago’s 1933-1934 Century of Progress World’s Fair. During the Great Depression, Fuller formed the Dymaxion Corporation and built three prototypes with noted naval architect Starling Burgess and a team of 27 workmen — using gifted money as well as a family inheritance.
Fuller associated the word Dymaxion with much of his work, a portmanteau of the words dynamic, maximum, and tension to sum up the goal of his study, “maximum gain of advantage from minimal energy input.”
The Dymaxion was not an automobile per se, but rather the ‘ground-taxying mode’ of a vehicle that might one day be designed to fly, land and drive — an “Omni-Medium Transport” for air, land and water. Fuller focused on the landing and taxiing qualities, and noted severe limitations in its handling. The team made constant improvements and refinements to the platform, and Fuller noted the Dymaxion “was an invention that could not be made available to the general public without considerable improvements.”
The bodywork was aerodynamically designed for increased fuel efficiency and speed as well as light weight, and its platform featured a lightweight cromoly-steel hinged chassis, rear-mounted V8 engine, front-drive and three-wheels. The vehicle was steered via the third wheel at the rear, capable of 90° steering lock. Thus able to steer in a tight circle, the Dymaxion often caused a sensation, bringing nearby traffic to a halt.
Shortly after launch, a prototype crashed after being hit by another car, killing the Dymaxion’s driver. The other car was driven by a local politician and was illegally removed from the accident scene, leaving reporters who arrived subsequently to blame the Dymaxion’s unconventional design — though investigations exonerated the prototype. Fuller would himself later crash another prototype with his young daughter aboard.
Despite courting the interest of important figures from the auto industry, Fuller used his family inheritance to finish the second and third prototypes — eventually selling all three, dissolving Dymaxion Corporation and maintaining the Dymaxion was never intended as a commercial venture. One of the three original prototypes survives.
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2010)
A Dymaxion house at The Henry Ford Museum
Fuller’s energy-efficient and inexpensive Dymaxion house garnered much interest, but has never been produced. Here the term “Dymaxion” is used in effect to signify a “radically strong and light tensegrity structure”. One of Fuller’s Dymaxion Houses is on display as a permanent exhibit at The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan. Designed and developed during the mid-1940s, this prototype is a round structure (not a dome), shaped something like the flattened “bell” of certain jellyfish. It has several innovative features, including revolving dresser drawers, and a fine-mist shower that reduces water consumption. According to Fuller biographer Steve Crooks, the house was designed to be delivered in two cylindrical packages, with interior color panels available at local dealers. A circular structure at the top of the house was designed to rotate around a central mast to use natural winds for cooling and air circulation.
Conceived nearly two decades before, and developed in Wichita, Kansas, the house was designed to be lightweight and adapted to windy climates. It was to be inexpensive to produce and purchase, and assembled easily. It was to be produced using factories, workers, and technologies that had produced World War II aircraft. It was ultramodern-looking at the time, built of metal, and sheathed in polished aluminum. The basic model enclosed 90 m2 (970 sq ft) of floor area. Due to publicity, there were many orders during the early Post-War years, but the company that Fuller and others had formed to produce the houses failed due to management problems.
In 1969, Fuller began the Otisco Project, named after its location in Otisco, New York. The project developed and demonstrated concrete spray technology used in conjunction with mesh covered wireforms as a viable means of producing large scale, load bearing spanning structures built on site without the use of pouring molds, other adjacent surfaces or hoisting.
The initial construction method used a circular concrete footing in which anchor posts were set. Tubes cut to length and with ends flattened were then bolted together to form a duodeca-rhombicahedron (22-sided hemisphere) geodesic structure with spans ranging to 60 feet (18 m). The form was then draped with layers of ¼-inch wire mesh attached by twist ties. Concrete was then sprayed onto the structure, building up a solid layer which, when cured, would support additional concrete to be added by a variety of traditional means. Fuller referred to these buildings as monolithic ferroconcrete geodesic domes. The tubular frame form proved too problematic when it came to setting windows and doors, and was abandoned. The second method used iron rebar set vertically in the concrete footing and then bent inward and welded in place to create the dome’s wireform structure and performed satisfactorily. Domes up to three stories tall built with this method proved to be remarkably strong. Other shapes such as cones, pyramids and arches proved equally adaptable.
The project was enabled by a grant underwritten by Syracuse University and sponsored by US Steel (rebar), the Johnson Wire Corp, (mesh) and Portland Cement Company (concrete). The ability to build large complex load bearing concrete spanning structures in free space would open many possibilities in architecture, and is considered as one of Fuller’s greatest contributions.
Dymaxion map and World Game
Fuller also designed an alternative projection map, called the Dymaxion map. This was designed to show Earth’s continents with minimum distortion when projected or printed on a flat surface. In the 1960s, Fuller developed the World Game, a collaborative simulation game played on a 70-by-35-foot Dymaxion map, in which players attempt to solve world problems. The object of the simulation game is, in Fuller’s words, to “make the world work, for 100% of humanity, in the shortest possible time, through spontaneous cooperation, without ecological offense or the disadvantage of anyone.”
Following his global prominence from the 1960s onward, Fuller became a frequent flier, often crossing time zones to lecture in international cities. In the 1960s and 70s, he wore three watches simultaneously; one for the time zone of his office in Carbondale, one for the time zone of the location he would next visit, and one for the time zone he was currently in. In the 1970s, Fuller was only in ‘homely’ locations (his personal home in Carbondale, Illinois; his holiday retreat in Bear Island, Maine; his daughter’s home in Pacific Palisades, California) roughly 65 nights per year—the other 300 nights were spent in hotel beds in the locations he visited on his lecturing and consulting circuits.
In the 1920s, Fuller experimented with polyphasic sleep, which he called Dymaxion sleep. Inspired by the sleep habits of the animals such as dogs and cats, Fuller worked until he was tired, and then slept short naps. This generally resulted in Fuller sleeping 30-minute naps every 6 hours. This allowed Bucky “twenty-two thinking hours a day”, which aided his work productivity. Fuller reportedly kept this Dymaxion sleep habit for two years, before quitting the routine because it conflicted with his business associates’ sleep habits. Despite no longer personally partaking in the habit, in 1943 Fuller suggested Dymaxion sleep as a strategy that the United States could adopt to win World War II.
Despite only practising true polyphasic sleep for a period during the 1920s, Fuller was known for his stamina throughout his life. He was described as “tireless” by Barry Farrell in Life Magazine, who noted that Fuller stayed up all night replying to mail during Farrell’s 1970 trip to Bear Island. When he was aged in his seventies, Fuller generally slept for 5–8 hours per night.
Fuller documented his life copiously from 1915 to 1983, approximately 270 feet (82 m) of papers in a collection called the Dymaxion Chronofile. He also kept copies of all incoming and outgoing correspondence. The enormous Fuller Collection is currently housed at Stanford University.
If somebody kept a very accurate record of a human being, going through the era from the Gay 90s, from a very different kind of world through the turn of the century—as far into the twentieth century as you might live. I decided to make myself a good case history of such a human being and it meant that I could not be judge of what was valid to put in or not. I must put everything in, so I started a very rigorous record.
In his youth, Fuller experimented with several ways of presenting himself: R. B. Fuller, Buckminster Fuller, but as an adult finally settled on R. Buckminster Fuller, and signed his letters as such. However, he preferred to be addressed as simply “Bucky”.
Language and neologisms
Buckminster Fuller spoke and wrote in a unique style and said it was important to describe the world as accurately as possible. Fuller often created long run-on sentences and used unusual compound words (omniwell-informed, intertransformative, omni-interaccommodative, omniself-regenerative) as well as terms he himself invented.
Fuller used the word Universe without the definite or indefinite articles (the or a) and always capitalized the word. Fuller wrote that “by Universe I mean: the aggregate of all humanity’s consciously apprehended and communicated (to self or others) Experiences.”
The words “down” and “up”, according to Fuller, are awkward in that they refer to a planar concept of direction inconsistent with human experience. The words “in” and “out” should be used instead, he argued, because they better describe an object’s relation to a gravitational center, the Earth. “I suggest to audiences that they say, ‘I’m going “outstairs” and “instairs.”‘ At first that sounds strange to them; They all laugh about it. But if they try saying in and out for a few days in fun, they find themselves beginning to realize that they are indeed going inward and outward in respect to the center of Earth, which is our Spaceship Earth. And for the first time they begin to feel real ‘reality.'”
“World-around” is a term coined by Fuller to replace “worldwide”. The general belief in a flat Earth died out in classical antiquity, so using “wide” is an anachronism when referring to the surface of the Earth—a spheroidal surface has area and encloses a volume but has no width. Fuller held that unthinking use of obsolete scientific ideas detracts from and misleads intuition. Other neologisms collectively invented by the Fuller family, according to Allegra Fuller Snyder, are the terms “sunsight” and “sunclipse”, replacing “sunrise” and “sunset” to overturn the geocentric bias of most pre-copernican celestial mechanics.
Fuller also invented the word “livingry,” as opposed to weaponry (or “killingry”), to mean that which is in support of all human, plant, and Earth life. “The architectural profession—civil, naval, aeronautical, and astronautical—has always been the place where the most competent thinking is conducted regarding livingry, as opposed to weaponry.”
As well as contributing significantly to the development of tensegrity technology, Fuller invented the term “tensegrity” from tensional integrity. “Tensegrity describes a structural-relationship principle in which structural shape is guaranteed by the finitely closed, comprehensively continuous, tensional behaviors of the system and not by the discontinuous and exclusively local compressional member behaviors. Tensegrity provides the ability to yield increasingly without ultimately breaking or coming asunder.”
“Dymaxion” is a portmanteau of “dynamic maximum tension”. It was invented about 1929 by two admen at Marshall Field’s department store in Chicago to describe Fuller’s concept house, which was shown as part of a house of the future store display. They created the term utilizing three words that Fuller used repeatedly to describe his design – dynamic, maximum, and ion.
Fuller also helped to popularize the concept of Spaceship Earth: “The most important fact about Spaceship Earth: an instruction manual didn’t come with it.”
Concepts and buildings
His concepts and buildings include:
Dymaxion house (1928)
Aerodynamic Dymaxion car (1933)
Prefabricated compact bathroom cell (1937)
Dymaxion deployment unit (1940)
Dymaxion map of the world (1946)
Buildings (1943)[clarification needed]
Tensegrity structures (1949)
Geodesic dome for Ford Motor Company (1953)
Patent on geodesic domes (1954)
The World Game (1961) and the World Game Institute (1972)
Patent on octet truss (1961)
Montreal Biosphère (1967), United States pavilion at Expo 67
Comprehensive anticipatory design science
June 14, 2015 @ 5:49 pm
….and the government says what about Tehran which is so contrary to the following article:
Iran Nuclear Stockpile Grows
Callum Wood | June 7
The past 18 months have seen a flurry of
nuclear negotiations between Iran and
the P5+1 nations. Yet according to a United
Nations International Atomic Energy Agency
(iaea) report, over the same time period Iran’s
enriched uranium stockpile has also undergone
The report claims that in the last year and
a half Iran’s stockpile of enriched uranium has
grown by 20 percent.
The report flies in the face of Washington’s
claim that the stockpile had been reduced or
destroyed. In early March, White House Press
Secretary Josh Earnest stated, “[W]e’ve actually
succeeded in not just halting Iran’s progress
as it relates to their nuclear program but actually
rolling it back in several key areas, including
reducing and eliminating their stockpile of highly
Yet, if anything, Iran has rolled forward.
When the White House said the stockpile was
gone, it merely meant that a promise to eliminate
the uranium existed. But time and time again,
Iran has proven that its word is worthless.
Iran hasn’t stopped its enrichment, nor has it
any plans to remove it if a deal is signed. And in
all likelihood, Iran has no intention of halting its
nuclear program—not today, tomorrow or after a
deal is signed.
In Trumpet managing editor Joel Hilliker and
contributor Aaron Hudson’s latest article, “President
Obama’s Remarkable Defense of the Iran
Nuclear Deal,” they wrote: “Fifteen years of failed
negotiations tell us that while one side seeks a
peaceful outcome, the other seeks the bomb.
Iran is not interested in negotiations, peace deals
or living alongside Israel. If it were, negotiations
would have concluded years ago and Westerners
would be sipping piña coladas in tourist resorts
along the Persian Gulf.”
Iran’s expanding nuclear stockpile is just one
more proof of its contempt for negotiations. Keep
watching. Deal or no deal, nothing good will come
of the June 30 deadline
RSS feed for comments on this post.
Mail (will not be published) (required)
XHTML: You can use these tags: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>
Template adapted from Blue Horizon, designed by Kaushal Sheth.